Did you know that the mathematician Fibonacci discovered a sequence of numbers that exists in nature? The order is as follows: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, and continues on to infinity. Each new number in the sequence is the total of the previous two numbers, and they are known as the Fibonacci numbers or the Fibonacci sequence. The ratio between the numbers (1.618034) is frequently called the golden ratio or golden number.

Nature’s call

Nature is full of the Fibonacci sequence. The spiral patterns that you see in sunflowers and pinecones all have the sequence and golden ratio, as do pineapples and cauliflowers. The sequence appears in the way plants arrange their leaves, a pattern which gives them maximum exposure to light, just as flowers use Fibonacci for maximum seed arrangement.

Body count

It’s not just plants that showcase these patterns; most of our human body parts follow the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 5. We have one nose, two eyes, three sections to each limb and five fingers on each hand.

Scratch the surface


The golden ratio is expressed in spiralling shells. In this illustration, areas of the shell’s growth are mapped out in squares. If the two smallest squares have a width and height of one square, then the box to their left has measurements of two. The other boxes measure 3, 5, 8 and 13.